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What is sourdough?

What

Sourdough is a dough containing a lactobacillus culture, usually in symbiotic combination with yeasts. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts produce lactic acid, acetic acid, alcohols, aromatic substances and carbon dioxide.

In order to make a sourdough, wheat flour or rye flour mixed with water into a loose dough that can stand and ferment at room temperature

As a means to get the sourdough start, fruits can be mixed in, for example apple or raisins.

You can bake sourdough bread with a little or no yeast.

Different kinds of sourdough bread.
There are endless amount of recipes for sourdough bread. The most common is to make a sourdough starter based on rye or wheat flour. Sourdough bread is often acidic and dark in the northern and eastern Europe and it is produced by fermenting the dough cold.
In southern Europe, you often see white sourdough bread that is not very acidic. They ferment the dough warm and for a short time.